Politics refers to the behavior of government , political parties, etc. to govern the country. Politics is a superstructure based on the economy , a concentrated expression of the economy , and the sum of various social activities and social relations developed at the core of state power . Politics is affecting the social interests of all members and to govern their behavior social forces .
Politics is a social science with politics as the research object , studying the theory of political behavior and investigating the acquisition and exercise of power. The activities of the government , political party , group or individual in national affairs and the measures implemented by the government.
- Basic definition:
Politics is the specific behavior of various power subjects in the superstructure field to maintain their own interests and the specific relationships formed by it. It is an important social phenomenon that has developed to a certain period of human history . Politics has a major influence and effect on all aspects of social life. This social phenomenon is very complicated. Political scientists of different times have made various discussions on it from different angles and different focuses. Politics develops with the progress of society from low to high, and the depth and breadth of social members’ participation in political life also develops.
Political system refers to the specific form of political expression and implementation of the system, the system is to regulate the management of the country’s political affairs, specifically refers to specific systems and adapt the basic system of leadership system, organizational system, work systems, etc., referred to as the form of government .
Politics contains two meanings:
- “Politics” refers to the government;
- “Governance” refers to governance.
“Politics” is the main body of the political power, “governance” is the method and means to maintain the political power, and governance revolves around politics. Politics includes military , law , political institutions, political party groups, and so on. “Politics” mainly refers to the regime, government, army, police, courts, prisons, political organizations, and political institutions. “Governance” mainly refers to laws, systems, policies and actions based on these, including military, legal, and administrative aspects. “Politics” is hardware, and “governance” is software.
From the perspective of human sociology , politics is a very important social phenomenon in human society, which affects all aspects of human life. This social phenomenon is very complicated, so in different historical periods, different cultures, different languages, and different disciplines, different scholars have different opinions on him. Moreover, the political connotation itself is constantly changing, so the interpretation of politics is also full of controversy, and there has never been an exact and accepted definition.
Politics is social interaction product of continuous development, social interaction and constantly tend to scale, standardization procedures, clarity, accurate results and bar culture. The development of social interaction has given rise to social management , which is a “rule system for social interaction”. Politics is also the product of the continuous development of social management. It is the result of social management’s continuous trend toward scale , standardization , proceduralization , clarity, precision, and discipline.
Social management can be divided into two basic types : standardized social management and non-standardized social management . Among them, standardized social management is politics, and non-standardized social management generally refers to private management.
Political nature : that is the standardization of social management .
This “standardized” social management mainly includes: the evaluation and selection of standardized social management personnel; the establishment of standardized social management institutions and their management functions; the formulation of standardized social management procedures; the constraints of standardized social management behaviors; standardization The allocation of natural resources; standardized rules of benefit distribution, etc.
- Basic form
According to the different objects of standardized social management, politics can be divided into the following basic forms.
(1) Standardized management of human resources. The allocation rules of human resources mainly include: labor allocation rules, such as labor law, minor protection law, compulsory education law, etc.
(2) Standardized management of natural resources (land resource management and environmental management) . Rules for the allocation of natural resources, such as the Mineral Resources Law, Forest Protection Law, Water Law, Land and Resources Law, Environmental Protection Law, etc.
(3) Standardized management of intellectual property rights (ie information management) . Configuration rules for intellectual products, such as intellectual property protection law, patent law, copyright law, etc.; restrictions on dangerous and harmful products, such as drug management law, chemical dangerous goods safety management regulations, etc.; personnel health and safety rules, such as food hygiene law , Frontier Health and Quarantine Law, etc.
(4) Standardized management of behavior. Restrictions on economic behaviors, such as the Environmental Protection Law, Work Safety Law, etc.; the Criminal Law, General Principles of Civil Law, Marriage Law, Contract Law, Anti-Unfair Competition Law, Company Law, etc., as well as various regulations, regulations and Regulations etc.
(5) Standardized management of property. Property law , inheritance law , etc.
(6) Standardized management of the organization. Company law, administrative procedure law , state compensation law, military service law, etc.
In addition, it is also necessary to establish an organizational structure for the creation , implementation, supervision and evaluation of various economic rules and corresponding laws and regulations, such as administrative litigation law and organizational law.
- Judging criteria:
The criterion for judging the merits of politics comes from social practice, whether it meets the needs of the development of comprehensive productivity, whether it can promote the prosperity of the social civilization, and make the country prosperous and the people strong. , Distinguishing right from wrong, appointing talents and using abilities, opening up a wide range of ways, is especially important!
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